英国语言学homework-论中国中学生英语教育的分析

2017-04-06 22:46:08      点击:
 

例如,九年级unit4 Reading阅读前,在幻灯片中播放一些交通事故、从楼上摔倒的图片、烧伤的图片等,引导学生讲述曾经自己的处理办法,因为经历和感受几乎每个孩子都有,激发了他们踊跃发言,交流范围广泛而深入。最后提出问题what would you do if…将所有注意力吸引到一个问题上来,让学生带着疑问,在文章中找答案,为阅读做了很好地铺垫。

For example, prior to unit4 Reading of Grade 9, the teachers can play a number of pictures about the traffic accidents, upstairs fall and burns in the slide and then guide students to speak out their own approach to deal with such emergencies. As almost every child has similar experience and feeling, these pictures will inspire them to speak out their opinions actively. As a result, the scope of the communication will be extensive and deep. Finally, the teachers can put forward a question “what would you do if ...” to attract all attention to a problem, so that students will find the answers in the article with a question. This does great foreshadowing for the reading.

3背景铺垫式导入

背景铺垫是把阅读语篇的相关背景材料生动,形象地展示给学生。初中学生的特点是好奇心强,求知欲旺盛,爱听爱读有趣的故事,教师可以抓住这一点,将学生的好奇心转化成浓厚的学习兴趣。

3. Background-foreshadowing lead in

Background-foreshadowing is to show the students the related background of the reading materials in an interesting and lively way. According to Dorit Sasson, an effective way to teach the reading strategies is to make good use of graphic organizers2 (Sasson, 2007). The junior students are characterized by strong curiosity, vigorous [1]intellectual curiosity and great interest in listening to and reading interesting books. The teachers can make good use of this point to turn the curiosity of the students into rich learning interest.

例如,九年级Unit10 Reading Should I be allowed to make my own decisions?阅读前,在幻灯片中播放刘翔跑步的照片,问学生是否知道刘翔的家长对他跑步是支持还是反对呢?接着展示本文作者的图片,对学生讲作者对于跑步的态度及父母在这一过程中所担心、所顾虑的问题是什么,让学生分别站在家长和作者的角度上进行讨论,最后带着讨论的结果阅读文章

For instance, before reading Unit 10 Reading Should I be Allowed to Make My Own Decisions, the teachers can play the pictures about Liuxiang running and ask the students whether they know Liuxiang's parents are for or against his decision to run. Next, the teachers go on showing the pictures of the author and tell the students the author’s attitude to the running and the problem the parents care and fear and let the students discuss the matter from the view of the parents and the author. At last, let the students read the text with the results of the discussion. 

4预测式导入

预测机制在阅读中起着非常重要的作用,它不仅能够帮助学生准确地把握焦点,培养其逻辑思维和判断能力,还能极大地激发学生的阅读兴趣,提高学生的阅读效果。教师可以通过各种问题设置悬念,是学生在阅读前对文章内容产生好奇,同时可以在预测过程中渗透词汇教学,为阅读理解扫清障碍。教师可以利用标题或插图,启发学生预测阅读的内容。

4. Prediction lead in

Prediction mechanism plays an important part in the reading, which can not only help the students master the focus accurately and cultivate their abilities of logical thinking and judgment, but also greatly activate the reading interests and improve the reading effects of the students. The teachers can create the suspense through various questions to cause the students to have the interests in the text contents before reading. Meanwhile, the teachers can carry out the vocabulary teaching in the process of prediction to sweep the obstacles for the reading comprehension. Besides, the teachers can make good use of the titles or illustrations to inspire the students to predict the reading contents. 

1       利用插图

例如,八年级Unit2 3aA Healthy Lifestyle, the Chinese Way. 阅读前, 让学生谈论课本插图,提问Do you what does this picture mean? And do you know what is the passage talking aboutDo you use some traditional ways to take care of yourselves? At last ask if you want be healthy, Traditional Chinese doctors believe what? Do you agree?

Make good use of illustration

Take3aA Healthy Lifestyle, theChinese Wayin Unit 2 of the textbook of Grade 8 as an example. Before reading, let students talk about the illustration in the text and ask the following questions: Do you know what does this picture mean? And do you know what is the passage talking aboutDo you use some traditional ways to take care of yourselves? At last ask if you want be healthy, Traditional Chinese doctors believe what? Do you agree?

2       利用标题

例如,九年级unit7 SectionA3aTRAVEL SPOTLIGHT: PARIS阅读前, 让学生结合标题进行推测,提问What do you think this text is about? DO you know spotlight? What do you know aboutParis? Why do they think it is travel spotlight? What sights do you know there? What do you think of it ?

Make good use of the title

Take Section A3aTRAVEL SPOTLIGHT:PARISin the unit 7 of Grade 9 as an example. Before reading, let students make a guess based on the title, and ask the following questions: What do you think this text is about? DO you know spotlight? What do you know aboutParis? Why do they think it is travel spotlight? What sights do you know there? What do you think of it?

Step 2 While-reading

Skimming (粗读或略读)

这一步骤是为掌握文章大意而进行的阅读,要求学生读后找出文章的大意(general idea)、主题句(topic sentence),概括文章的标题(title),并注意文章的关键词、过渡词等。也可以设计一些简单的选择题或者判断对错的问题给学生回答。此环节要提醒学生不要逐词逐句的看课文,要讲究速度,在最短时间内找到问题的答案。在环节中,教师可向学生展示下列问题:

1 What is the main idea of the text?

2 What is the topic sentence of each paragraph?

例如九年级Unit3 Reading Should I be allowed to make my own decisions? 布置给学生的第一任务是:Skim the passage quickly and answer:

Li Yu wants to be____________ very much,

but his parents___________.

He wants to make_________________

Step 2 While-reading

 Skimming

The purpose of this step is to understand the general idea of the article. The students are required to find out the general idea and topic sentence, summarize the title and pay attention to the key words and transitional words. Sometimes, design some simple multiple choice questions or True or False items for the students to answer. In this step, it is necessary to remind students not to read the text sentence by sentence and words by words but to put emphasis on the speed, that is, find out the answers to the questions in the shortest time. In this step, teachers can show the students the following questions:

1 What is the main idea of the text?

2 What is the topic sentence of each paragraph?

Take Unit3ReadingShould I be allowed to make my own decisions? of Grade 9 as an example. The first task assigned to the students is:

Skim the passage quickly and answer:

Li Yu wants to be____________ very much,

but his parents___________.

He wants to make_________________

Scanning (跳读)

这是一种为寻求特定细节,放弃大部分无关内容,只注意某一点或几点的阅读方式。要求学生根据老师准备的几个信息问题抓住重点进行跳跃式阅读,找出问题的主要信息。这些问题一般围绕when, where, what, why, whow问题。也可以出一段填空文字。训练学生的主要阅读能力,形成“独立阅读,合作交流,

个性构建”的阅读教学模式,要求学生在初读的基础上,各自独立完成精读任务,然后与同桌或同组同学合作,解决疑难点,再对文章的内容构建自己的观点。此环节也要讲究速度。例如:九年级 Unit33a让学生利用跳读的方法就行讨论合作完成表格。

Scanning

It is a reading way that gives up most unnecessary contents and only focuses on a certain point or several points for specific details. Students are required to scan the whole text to grasp the key points and find out the main information according to the information questions prepared by teachers. These questions are related to when, where, what, why and who. Filling in the blank is also applicable. Then, the main reading abilities of the students should be trained to form the reading instruction model of “Independent Reading, Cooperative Communication, and Personality Construction”. On the basis of initial reading, the students are required to finish the task of intensive reading independently, followed by working together with their partners to solve the difficulties. Then, form their own ideas based on the contents. Speed is also emphasized in this step. For example: in the unit 33aof Grade 9, the students are asked to work together to discuss and finish the chart after scanning the text.

Fill in the chart: ideas about wearing school uniforms

Teachers’ idea

Students’ ideas

 

 

 

Intensive reading (细读)

仔细的进行阅读,以便掌握全文内容及语言特征等。要求学生明确文章结构,找出语法难点,学习重点词语,进一步吸收新的词语知识、语法知识和文化知识。教师可以在读后让学生自己提出问题,包括不明白的单词,短语,句子结构,语法等。

Read carefully to understand the contents and language characteristics. The students are required to understand the structure of the article, find out the difficult grammar points, learn the key phrases and absorb new knowledge of phrase, grammar and culture further. Teachers can ask the students to come up with questions after reading, including unclear words, phrases, sentence structures and grammars.

在阅读课中,知识点和语法的讲解要尽量简练,因为阅读课的目的主要培养的是学生的阅读技能。教师要鼓励学生根据上下文去猜测新单词的意思。在初中各项考试的阅读理解中也经常见到让学生根据上下文猜新单词意思的题目,因此,这一阶段对培训学生根据上下文猜单词的能力有很大帮助。另外,在这一阶段也要引导学生学会运用参考书、字典等工具书,培养学生的自学能力。一些问题教师可以给时间让学生自己分组讨论解决。但是,当语法难而影响理解时,就要加以解释。尤其是一些复合句要带领学生进行分析,这个环节会占用比较多的时间。总之,在此环节中,要注意的是教师占主导作用;真正的主体是学生。多让学生去想,去说,去讨论,去动手,去钻研。

In the reading class, the explanation of knowledge points and grammars should be simple, as the main purpose is to develop students’ reading skills. Teachers should encourage students to guess the meaning of the new words according to the context. Such questions often can be seen in the reading comprehension of various exams in junior middle school. As a result, this step is helpful to improve the ability of the students to guess the meaning of the words based on the context. Besides, in this step, students should be guided to learn how to use the reference books, such as dictionary, to develop the ability of self-learning. For some questions, teachers should give students enough time to have a group discussion and find out the solution by themselves. However, when the grammars are so difficult that they may affect the students’ understanding, the teachers should explain them and analyze some complex sentences. This step will take up more time. In a word, importance shall be attached to that the real main body is students instead of the teachers who just play the leading role. Let the students think, speak, discuss the questions, do and study on their own.

Listening and reading (听读)

在操作完细读后可以让学生听课文录音,教师要告诉学生听的时候注意语音、语调,并尽量模仿,然后让学生大声朗读。这一步骤可以训练学生的听力,帮助学生进一步理解课文,为下一步复述课文打下基础。一开始可以看着书本听,熟悉课文后也可以合上书本听。像简单的文章还可以列出问题来给学生带着问题挺,或者设计挖词填空题,将一篇文章中的重点短语、时态、介词及一些固定搭配挖空,让学生听,听完以后快速填空,一来学生听力得到了提高,二来文章中的知识点又得到了有效的巩固。如 七年级下册Unit93a,精读后可设计下面的题型。

Teachers should let students listen to the text recording after intensive reading, and tell them to pay attention to the pronunciation, tone and try their best to imitate while listening and then read loudly. This step can train the listening ability of the students and help them further understand the text, which lays a solid foundation to the following text repetition. At the beginning, students can listen with the text. Next, when they get familiar with the text, they can listen without the text. As for simple texts, list some questions or design the exercise of filling in blank for the students to do while listening. In the exercise of filling in blank, some blanks about the key phrases, tenses, prepositions and set structures can be designed for the students to fill in after the listening. It can not only improve their listening abilities, but also strengthen the knowledge points in the text. For example, in3ain the unit 9 of Grade 7, the following exercises can be designed after intensive reading.