英国社会学专业留学essay-用社会视角来看待和解决问题的方法

2019-02-20 17:11:39      点击:

Sociological imagination is a kind of integrated ability. With this ability, people can imagine a two-dimensional coordinate system, the X axis is the society structure, the Y axis is the historical background, then they could put the social affairs into this coordinate system, so that they can analyze the social affairs from different angles, can build relationship between social problems and personal troubles, can build relationship between society structure and personal trouble, and can build relationship between history background and personal trouble.  To get this ability, people need to have history knowledge, anthropology knowledge and critique knowledge.

社会学视角是人们的一种综合能力,人们可以把社会想象成一个二维的坐标,x轴是社会结构,y轴是历史结构,把社会事务放到这个坐标系中,人们就可以从不同的角度来分析和处理事情。要获得这种能力,人们不仅需要更多的历史知识,也需要更多的社会经验和批判性的分析看待事务的能力。

From the definition of sociological imagination and the coordinate system, we could see that every social issue has something to do with the society structure and the history background. When one has the sociological imagination ability, and when he has a personal trouble, the X axis will tell him that not only he has the problem. Probably many others also have this problem. And there should be some social structure issue behind his problem. And the Y axis will tell him the similar scene of history. Then he will know what actions he should take.

通过这个坐标,人们可以清晰的看到,任何一个问题都有他的社会背景和历史背景。当处理这个问题时,x轴会告诉他关于这个问题的历史方面的问题。Y轴会告诉他类似的历史场景,然后他就会知道应该采取什么样的措施或者方法。

The sociological imagination can help us clearly recognize the difference between our sense of value and other sense of value, and can help us make judgment if the other sense of value would be acceptable to us or not, so we will not be dominated by others easily. The sociological imagination can also help people to find issues in the society, to use proper sentence to express these issues, and to show our opinion and theory to the readers.

2. Compare and contrast the Mills, Lemert, and Charon articles on the following questions. Keep in mind that Mills does not explicitly answer the following questions about theory, although his approach is very much about creating explanations about the social world. The other authors may also provide implicit rather than explicit responses to these questions. How do you think the authors would respond to the following based on their writings? Explain your responses drawing on the readings (Seidman may not be relevant, but you may include if you feel he adds anything to your response. Approximately 2-4 paragraphs).

a. What is theory? How to the authors seem to agree or disagree about the basic question of theory? b. Who creates theory?

The theory is an assumption, an idea, a theory, a tropism, an angle of view, a statement or a conclusion. It had a function of generalizing, abstracting and summarizing the individual cases.

Mills answers: The theory is we need to use historical knowledge and psychology knowledge to research society issue. The author agreed with common value, and disagreed with T. Parsons structural functionalism. Mills though was affected by the German classical sociological theory and pragmatic sociology, and he made several contributions in political sociology and social psychology. To understand the relationship between the individual and the society structure better, Mills initiated the sociological imagination, and suggested to use historical knowledge and psychology knowledge to research society issue

米勒回答的这个问题,理论上我们需要历史知识和心理学知识才能完整的回答出来,笔者和他有共同的想法和观点,米尔斯从小受西方国家的教育,他在政治和经济方面做出了比较大的贡献,但是为了更好的理解个人和社会的关系,米尔斯提出了社会学视角,并且建议利用历史知识和心理学知识来解决社会问题。

Lemert answers: The theory is to research the difference of the languages in the society. The author agreed that person- centered, and disagreed with that there were several models in the society. Lemert suggested we could use human to measure everything, and we could use lexical sociology, se-mantical sociology and syntactical sociology to research society.

Charon answer: The theory is to research the society structure. The author agreed that we could criticize the society, but disagree that the society issues could be improved. Charon suggested us to research the society base on 4 questions: 1. what are the social issues? 2. What makes a single trouble become a social issue? 3. What is the root cause of the social issue? 4. What corrective action we can take for the issue?

3. Lemert suggests that creating social theory is not limited to the domain of "professional" theorists (e.g., academics). In fact, some may argue that people who are embedded within a particular set of social contexts and relationships may be the most qualified to create theoretical explanations for those set of experiences. For example, people who experience poverty may be in the best position to describe their situation in the most meaningful and accurate way (in other words, is it possible/desirable for relatively privileged groups to create meaningful theory about disadvantaged ones?). Drawing on the readings, create an argument for and against this position. Which argument do you find more compelling and why? (Approximately 3-4 paragraphs).

In some cases, relatively privileged groups can create meaningful theory about disadvantaged ones. When the relatively privileged groups work closely with the disadvantaged ones, relatively privileged groups may create meaningful theory about disadvantaged ones. Usually the relatively privileged groups have more resources, more knowledge, and they know how to learn from other experience, so when no one knows how to write the theory, the relatively privileged groups can do the job, and help the disadvantaged ones

In some cases, relatively privileged groups can create meaningful theory about disadvantaged ones. If relatively privileged groups do not have good data or experience, they will not have foundation for the theory, they may make wrong theory for the disadvantaged ones, and there would be no evidence to support their theory.

Sometimes the theory that the relatively privileged groups create is not the one the disadvantaged ones want. The theory may be from wrong resources. And the theory may seem ok, but in practice, it would not work well.

4. Should sociological theory and research be focused on simply studying the world as it is or how it ought to be? The former perspective is consistent with value-free science (objectivity), while the latter is seeking to incite social action for the purpose of change (moral position). Compare and contrast the four authors on this question. What do they assert (explicitly or implicitly) is the purpose of theory and research? Discuss each perspective. Which perspective do you most agree with and why? (Approximately 3-4 paragraphs).

Charles Wright Mills: in Mills opinion, sociological theory and research should be focused on how it ought to be. Mills theory emphasize the conflict in the society, and is with thick personal judgment and humanism color.

Charles clay Lemert: in Lemert opinion, sociological theory and research should be focused on simply studying the world as it is. Mills theory emphasis the thought of person- centered.

Steven Seidman: in Seidman opinion, sociological theory and research should be focused on how it ought to be. Seidman theory emphasize that the western culture and regulation create the sex conception. He thought that the future society would change from a law society to an explanation society, and critical society theory would be set up.

Joel m. Charon: in Charon opinion, sociological theory and research should be focused on simply studying the world as it is. Charon theory emphasis that the current society is built for certain peoples, and can only satisfy these people, but it could not satisfy all people, so the society issue would never be ended. His theory is not to provide solutions for the society, but to try to reduce the harm that the society issue does to the people.