澳洲初中生英语阅读能力的培养方法和模式的探讨和研究

2018-08-31 16:54:09      点击:

例如,八年级下unit6 SectionB3a阅读前,在幻灯片中展示一只雪球,让学生猜是什么,让学生展开联想,学生会说出beautiful ,lovely, collect, monster等词,根据学生回答,教师可以有选择的板书一些词汇,并引入更多词汇,进而穿插词汇教学,为阅读活动做好铺垫。

For example, before the reading of unit6 Section B3aof the second volume of Grade 8, the teachers can show a snowball in the slide, let students guess what it is, and let them start to imagine. Then, the students will say a lot of words, such as beautiful, lovely, collect, monster. According to the answers of the students, the teachers can choose to write some words on the blackboard, and introduce more vocabularies, followed by interspersing vocabulary teaching to pave the way for the reading.

 

2 分享经历式导入

教师结合阅读内容,根据学生认知水平,设计贴近学生实际生活的情景,播放画面,提出问题,调动学生生活经历,体验和感受,引导学生主动参与。

2  Experience-sharing lead in

The use of reading strategies shall depend on the proficiency levels1 (Lawrence, 2008). Teachers design the scenes which are close to the real lives of the students based on the reading material and the cognitive level of the students, play video, ask questions, mobilize the life experiences, experience and feelings of the students, and guide students to actively participate in the class,

[1]

How Did Kids Spend the Weekend?
  Yesterday, we ______ ten students at No.3 Middle School what they _____ last weekend.____ ______kids, the weekend _____ fun. ___ Saturday morning,
ten kids ____ homework or _______. On Saturday afternoon, five kids _____ _________, and three went to the _________. Two kids also _______
computer games. On Saturday evening, seven kids _________ a movie or ________ at home and watched TV. On Sunday, two kids ______ friends, nine kids________ their rooms, and five _______ _______.

Step 3 After- reading

通过阅读前、阅读中两个阶段的活动,学生对背景知识和阅读材料提供的信息有了完整的框架。“阅读后”阶段侧重于对课文中语言形式的掌握和运用、对文章结构的分析,或者可以对课文内容进行适当的延伸和拓展。“阅读后”活动可设计一些巩固性活动和拓展性活动。After- reading阶段旨在帮助学生熟悉新语言项目的书面和口头形式,结合视觉,听觉和口头表达,使学生初步形成新的语言习惯,是围绕阅读材料巩固知识的环节,及让学生通过活动进行知识的内化,迁移,从而掌握英语知识的技能,陶冶情操,拓宽视野,丰富生活经历,发展思维能力,提高语言实际能力。阅读后活动的开展可以检测前两个阶段的教学效果,了解学生对阅读材料的理解程度,具体可分以下几种类型。

After the activities in two stages of before-reading and while-reading, students form a complete frame about the information on the background knowledge and reading material. The stage of “after-reading” emphasizes on the demand and use of the language forms, the analysis of the text structure, or proper extend of the text contents. Some activities to strength and extend the ability of the students can be designed in “after-reading”. The stage of “after-reading” aims at helping students be familiar with the oral and written forms of the new language items, and initially develop new language habits combined with vision sense, hearing sense and oral expression. It centers on the steps to strengthen the knowledge based on the reading material, and internalize and migrate the knowledge through activities. Through these steps, the students can grasp the English knowledge and skills, cultivate their tastes, widen their horizon, enrich their experiences, develop ability of thinking and improve the practical language ability. The implement of after-reading activities can test the teaching result of the previous two stages and understand the students’ comprehension of reading material. These activities can be divided into the following types:

课文复述

开展课文复述的方法是让学生在理解课文的基础上,把阅读内容加以整理,有重点,有条理,有感情的叙述出来,融理解,记忆,表达于一体。课文复述需要学习者思考并整理课文内容,并用自己的话来复述。

Text repetition

The way of starting the text repetition is to reorganize the reading contents and repeat the key points orderly and emotionally, integrating the understanding, memory and expression according to the understanding of the text. It requires the students to think and reorganize the contents and repeat it in their own words.

课文复述的形式有问题—答案引导法、主题句+关键词提示法、表格提示法、图画提示法、转换人称复述法、角色扮演复述法和接力复述法。问题—答案引导法是教师根据课文内容提出一些关键性的引导问题,让学生先回答问题,然后根据问题的答案进行复述。主题句+关键词提示法是学生根据教师提供的每一段的主题句和一些关键词汇的提示进行复述。

The forms of text repetition include question-answer-directing method, topic sentences + key words prompting method, form prompting method, pictures prompting method, person change repetition method, role play repetition method and relay repetition method. Question-answer-directing method means that teachers come up with some key guiding questions according to the contexts. And the students answer the questions firstly, and then repeat the text according to the answers. Topic sentences + key words prompting method means that students make a repetition according to the topic sentences and key words in each paragraph offered by teachers.

表格提示法是教师根据课文的主要内容列出一个表格,学生填表并根据表格内容进行复述。图画提示法特别适用于描述动作和活动较多的文章,教师展示相关图片,学生看图复述。转换人称复述法是把第一人称转换为第三人称,或者相反。角色扮演复述法是让学生扮演课文中的某个角色,然后从该角色的角度复述课文。接力复述法是让学生轮流复述,每个学生复述课文中的一部分内容,此种复述形式学生参与面较大。在实际操作中,根据阅读材料的不同,教师可以灵活处理,选用一种复述方式或几种复述方式结合使用。

Form prompting method means that teachers list a form according to the main contents of the text and then the students fill the form and make a repetition according to the form contents. Pictures prompting method is especially suitable for the article with more movement and activities description. Teachers display the related pictures while students repeat the content based on these pictures. Person change repetition method means that the first person shall be changed into the third person, and vice versa. The role play repetition method requires the students to play certain roles in the text and repeat the text in the respect of those roles. Relay repetition method demands students to take their turn to repeat parts of the contents, which has a larger participation. In actual operation, teachers can handle the text flexibly based on the reading material, and choose one repetition method or combine with several methods.

例如在八年级unit3 Section B3aBen Lambert’s vacation  plans!阅读后,要求学生根据插图提示复述课文。

For example, in the unit3 Section B3aBen Lambert’s vacation plans of Grade 8, the students are required to repeat the article according to the illustration after reading.

2   基于课文的语篇填空

在设置语篇填空时,教师可充分利用课文语境、内容、语言等信息,适度变化文章结构和词汇语境,考察学生对课文内容的理解和语言形式的运用。基于课文的语篇填空既可以增强学生对课文的理解,又可以加强对词汇的认知、理解和运用。

(2) Text-oriented gap filling

When setting the gap filling, the teachers can make good use of such information, as the context, content and the language of the text and change the text structure and lexical context appropriately to test the ability of the students to understand the text contents and use the language form. The text-oriented gap filling can not only strengthen the understanding of the text, but also improve the cognition, understanding and use of the vocabularies.

例如在八年级下unit7 reading Would you mind keeping your voice down 阅读后,要求学生根据课文填空并进行口述。

For example, in the unit7 reading Would you mind keeping your voice down of Grade 8, students are required to fill the blank and make an oral account after reading.

Meaning (含义)

Etiquette is ________ and _______ social _________.

Differences (差异)

Etiquette is ______________ in every culture or in every situation.

Problems   and solutions

If we see someone ________________ of etiquette, we may politely give them some suggestions. We can say: Would you mind (not) _______something? OR Could you please (not) ______ something?

Sameness

 

Sometimes rules of etiquette are ________ almost everywhere, such as …

3       基于课文的采访问答

开展采访问答的方法是让学生分组根据课文进行采访问答,不局限于课文内容,可以根据实际情况提问和回答。这样不仅可以加深学生对课文的理解,而且可以培养学生的提问能力,既可以发展学生的口语表达能力,又可以提高学生的思考能力

(3) Text-oriented interview

The method of text-oriented interview means that the students make a group interview according to the text. The interview is not limited to the text contents and the students can ask and answer the questions according to the real condition, which will not only deepen students’ understanding of the text, but also develop their ability to ask. This can not only develop their ability of oral expression, but also improve their ability to think.