美国管理学专业assignment-权利和特权之间的对等关系讨论

2015-10-17 9:26:28      点击:
 

前面已经讨论了项目之间的联系,个人层面就是最好的例子,科林曾经说道,无论我们意思到与否,我们都在从性别方面和其他类别的事物进行打交道,包括种族和社会阶层,他们是不同的类别,相同的是,人们的心理和精神层面。社会的阶级和种族是改变特权和压迫的根本的动力。形成在个人层面和组织之间的,一个人作为一个独立的单元,会误导人们的行为和人们对感情的理解。作为信仰和原则的融合,他们永远代表着一组特定的事物。这是由于人们意识方面的因素,在很大程度上都是这样解释的,这和科林的想法也惊人的相似。之前讨论的是个人和群体的差异,在这里需要指出的,尽管人们的情感和意识有时候是一致的,是共同的信念,但是两者之间也存在着矛盾。

When it comes to the strongest connection between Collin’s ideas and the issues that have been discussed in the project before, the individual dimension is the best example. According to Collin, whether we are conscious or not, we are always in contact with people from other categories in terms of gender, race and social classes and it is the different categories that frame the individual biographies. Same as the person is in terms of psychical and even mental levels, the individual biographies that are based on the categories of gender, social classes and race are always changing due to the relativity of privileges and oppression as is discussed above. The connection between the idea of Collin and the discussed situation in previous parts of the project can be found in the annotated bibliography of Dovidio J.F. and Hebl M.R. (2005). Dovidio and Hebl highlighted the cognitive factors in forming discrimination at workplace at individual and organizational levels. Collin pointed out that the stereotype analysis of people belonging to different categories instead of treating each individual as an independent unit would mislead the understanding of people’s behavior and feelings. Stereotypes, as an integration of beliefs and principles, represent the particular cognition of a group that is often faulty due to the over-generalization This is in accordance with the explanation of cognitive factors mentioned by Dovidio and Hebl to a large extent. The strikingly similarity of Collin’s ideas and the previous discussions is the emphasis on individual discrepancies in a certain group. It is pointed out that despite the common belief that cognitive and affective intergroup orientations are consonant, the inconsistency exists between the two aspects. When analyzing the feelings and behavior of a group of people that seemingly belongs to the so-called category, the minor differences among different people should be taken into consideration instead of treating the group as a whole without evaluating the discrepancies of individuals. The commonality of the idea of Collin and previous discussion can be applied to many situations at work. For example, in terms of management who are often regarded as the governing class of a company is often interpreted as the power and privilege, huge discrepancies exists among different managers although they are in the same level at work. Financial management have financial powers and right of decisions over finance in a company while human resources manager are restricted to human resources and the corresponding decisions in most countries. The managers would have unbalanced privileges in different aspects and the key lies in the cognition of them as individuals not people in same category.

除了科林的共性项目之间的讨论,他们还有其他的相似之处和联系,为科林文学前面的讨论涵盖了更多更广泛的主题。科林认为,差异是无处不在的。无论是性别歧视,种族压迫 宗教和社会阶层。他们都是不同的关系之间的压迫的影响。功率差是一个不可能克服的差距。由于他们在人的能力方面是有差距的,拥有更多的人力的集团,拥有更多的特权的存在去掩盖甚至抹去特权的存在。这完全是一种歧视。由于不同的群里,有不同不同程度的权利的分配。信息的不碰等。这也可以看成是一种权利的表达。这就成就了某些人的特权。

Besides the above commonalities of Collin’s ideas and the previous discussions of the project, there are still other similarities and connections since both Collin’s literature and the previous discussion cover a wide range of topics. Collin believes that differences in power, whether it is in accordance with oppression of discrimination of gender, race, religion and social class, would be influential in framing the relationship the problems of which are caused by differing experiencing in oppression. Difference in power is a gap impossible to be overcome due to inherent constrain of ability in connection with others. In extreme cases, as is illustrated by Collin, the more powerful group that boasts of more privileges would overshadow and even erase the existence of a less privileged one. This is exactly a form of discrimination due to the unbalanced distribution of attention to different groups that have different levels of powers. The inequality of information, as is discussed in the previous parts in this project, can be regarded as an expression of power, would result in privilege for some people while disadvantage for others who have poor access to the information and other sources. The connection of Collin’s ideas and the content of the previous discussions is not only the mere mention of power and privileges; it is also the common belief in the concepts and relations of power and privilege. The role of power and privilege plays in determining the professional relationship at workplace are both confirmed in Collin’s literature and the previous discussions. Though a little discrepancy in the way to develop the analysis of the influence that power and privilege exert on the relationship, the general direction have much in common. What is more, the perspectives of both the privileged group and the less privileged one are analyzed. The difference lies in that Collin uses the authentic experiences while the discussed parts are based on imaginary situations with different groups of people.